How To Save Money On Your Two Wheeler Insurance

Tips to save money on two wheeler insurance

Many people in India own two wheelers. It is compulsory for you to buy a two-wheeler insurance policy if you own a bike or a scooter. But can you reduce the insurance expenses? Sure you can! Just follow these tips and you will see a difference.

Avoid making smaller claims: Before you make a claim, see how much the bill amount is. If it is a small amount, pay it yourself. Making numerous small claims will unnecessarily bring down your NCB to zero which will overall lead to a loss.

Attach anti-theft devices: A car insurance plan offers protection against theft and other dangers to the car. So if the car is found to be safe and less susceptible to thefts and break-ins, the insurer will offer a discount on the premium. Therefore look to install some anti-theft devices to the car to not only keep it safe but also to reduce your insurance costs.

Be a good driver and earn No-claim bonus: Driving carefully will reduce the chances of your car getting into mishaps. This will reduce the need to make claims and you will earn NCB. The NCB will in-turn pull down your insurance premium costs.

Renew two-wheeler insurance before expiry: Do not wait for the two wheeler insurance policy to expire before you renew it. If you have a lapsed policy, you may need to pay some fees and fines to get a new plan. So always try to renew the policy on time to save money.

Buy online: It is known fact that insurance bought online is cheaper. So buy a two wheeler insurance plan online and save a considerable amount of money.

Choose the right kind of cover: If you have a two wheeler that you use occasionally or is almost on its way out, opt for a third party cover. If however your bike is used daily and is a valuable vehicle, go for a comprehensive plan. Knowing which cover you need will help you save money.

Deductibles: Every two wheeler insurance plan has a deductible component. This means that as the policyholder, you will have to pay certain amount at the time of a claim and the insurance provider will pay the rest. A high deductible will lower your premium costs and vice versa. If you are confident of your driving skills and feel you won’t need too many claims, opt for a higher deductible. This will help you save money on your two wheeler insurance plan.

Compare: Last but not the least, you most definitely need to compare the available car insurance plans to get the best deal at the best rate. This is one of the easiest and quickest ways to save money on your bike insurance plan. Compare when you buy a new plan or renew an existing one.

Top Five Intra Day Trading Tips To Become A Better Trader

In words of Warren Buffet The stock market is a device for transferring money from the impatient to the patient. Let’s read between lines. The investor or trader who is impatient (frequent buy/sell strategy) transfers money to the patient (holding strategy).

Find below herewith five tips which should be followed by a day trader:

Take advice of professional trader

Before one starts day trading it is better to take advice from experienced and expert day trader trainer. Every trainer will have different teaching method and style. See for one who has good teaching method. He should also suit your trading style. They may be ready to teach in their free time. He may charge the fee. As he is spending his free time with you. But it is worth. You can assume that paid fee as an investment, which you need to get knowledge. They are the best share tip providers when you trade.

In future when you grow big, many newbies’s will come to get knowledge from you. At that time you can charge them likewise.

Gather information from financial news

One has to gather news from across the globe. Segregate relevant news, which affects your business. Analyze and set priority which news will most affect your business. Stay updated on news like meetings, change in government policies and rules. Local, national and international news should be followed.

M&A, financial results, entry/exit of members of BOD, etc. These types of related news of the company one have shares in, make sense.

Though the news does not impact a common man but may have an impact on your investment in the concerned company. This news helps to take a smarter decision, especially while trading shares. Through nifty future tips also one can gather information.

Treat trading as any other business

Take day-trading as any other business. It is not a hobby, but a serious business. It is not for fun that one is in day trading. Like any business, it needs devotion and dedication. Trading is a part. One has to devote a lot of time preparing a plan. Study different charts before coming to any conclusion. Follow news on TV, read business magazines, study reports etc. It is a full day activity.

Keep eye on professionals

One should study professionals. What they are buying, when they are selling. For how much time do they hold the script? Since they have experienced one can learn a lot by keeping eyes and ears open and mouth shut. If one makes mistakes, then analysis the mistake. What went wrong and where? You can find them in many share market advisory companies.

Patience

It needs time, energy and devotion to master the skills. As the old saying goes Rome was not built in a day It was destroyed and then rebuild. This process was repeated many times over. Even if one makes loss he has to get up again for a fight.

Traders do not profit all the time. Many a time they incur losses. So one has to be prepared for losses and have patience during the time of loss. Commodity tips are also helpful to know the market trends.

Today’s successful traders were also novice once in a while. They got success by their hard and smart work. They had put in their efforts, made mistakes, but kept up their learning process.

Working Capital Business Financing Sources

Working Capital business financing is never a question of why – it’s just simply a matter of when! Working capital and cash flow are of course the heart of every business. The challenges of obtaining that financing become a question of time.

Perhaps you need cash for for your regular ongoing business cycle – that’s the simple one – you buy inventory, your produce things, you sell, bill and collect. In a perfect world your suppliers give you unlimited time to pay, and unlimited credit limits. And of course your customers pay you in exactly 30 days. Guess what? It’s not a perfect world!

If you are a traditionally financed firm you have access to bank capital for revolving credit lines based on your business needs. But for a growing number of Canadian firms that access to traditional bank capital is not available. Those scenarios require a special expertise in identifying sources of business financing that work for you. The solutions actually are quite numerous – its becomes a questions of which solution works for your firm, what are the costs involved, and does the solution fit within your business model.

The business financing we are talking about can take many different forms – it might include an asset based line of credit, inventory financing or purchase order financing, a sale leaseback on unencumbered assets,, working capital term loans, or accounts receivable financing, otherwise known as factoring.

One of the most important things you can do for business financing is to ensure that the type of financing you source matches your needs. What we mean by that is that you should match short term needs with short term financing. Factoring might be a good example. If your receivables aren’t financed, and you need cash to meet inventory and supplier commitments that type of financing is immediate and addresses your needs. Why would you enter into a five year term loan at fixed payments for a short term capital need or requirement?

The best way to think of short term financing is to focus on the current assets part of your balance sheet – those items include inventory and accounts receivable typically. Those assets can quickly be monetized into a working capital facility that comes in a variety methods. The reality is that your inventory and accounts receivable grow lock step to your sales and your ability to finance them on an ongoing basis will give you access to, in essence, unlimited working capital.

There are some solid technical rules of them around how you can generate positive pricing for operating facilities. By calculating and analyzing some basic financial ratios (we call them relationships) in your financial statements you can get a strong sense of whats available in working capital business financing and what pricing might be involved. Those ratios are your current ratio, your inventory turns, your receivables turns or days sales outstanding, a, and your overall debt to worth ratio. Depending on where those final ratio calculations come in will ultimately allow your working capital financier to put your firm in a low risk, medium risk, or high risk band of pricing?

In Canada working capital rates range from 8-9% per annum to 1-2% per month, depending on what assets are financed and how they are financed.

So whats our bottom line in working capital business financing? It is simply there are alternatives available and you as a business owner of financial manager can assess those alternatives in terms of short term needs or long term needs. Pricing and solutions vary, and your ability to convey the positive aspects of your business to the working capital lender will ultimately lead to a final pricing and solution. Speak to a credible, experienced and trusted working capital business financing advisor to determine what solutions are the best for your firm.

Judge Some Facts Before Exchanging The Money

When you will go traveling, then you have to take the things, which you will need in that place. It is necessary because you will not get the facilities of your home there and you have to be prepared for every situation. But when the matter comes to the visiting of a foreign country, then apart from our excitement we have to think about the thing first is the money. As all of us know that there is variety in the currency of different place. So, we must take the proper currency of that place as we cannot do anything without it. There are some methods, by which you can exchange the money, like the banks, the ATMs or from some brokers.
The banks are the most reliable medium for exchanging the money. You can be assured by the fact that you will get the service authentically. They will systematically exchange the currency and you don’t have to think about it. You can also convert it from the banks of that place also. You will get the same reliable service. But as you are going to a public sector, then it will take some time and you have to wait for it. So, if you don’t have the time to wait there, then you will face difficulty by exchanging through the banks. The banks also charge high rates for converting the money, then it can be expensive for you.
You can take the money from the ATMs also. It is the most convenient medium for getting your cash, as you yourself will draw the money and you don’t have to depend on someone for this. So, you can take the money whenever you needed and it is the fastest service. But there I also the problem, as the ATMs charge a very high price for drawing the money. It will become more expensive for you as you have to pay more than the normal transaction. If you think that you will get the money at a time, then also it will not be safe for you to carry so much money to an unknown place. But with every transaction, you have to pay the charge.
When you will try to go some brokers for Cash Exchange, then it becomes easy for you as you can get the money by sitting at your home. You can do it by online and the agent will come to your home and will take the money from you and will also return it within the given time. It can be a suitable option for you as you don’t have to do anything for the exchanging the cash. But there also can be a problem as the matter is about your money, then you have to be a little careful and have to know about the broker and the agent, who will be the medium of transaction. If they are not reliable enough, then your money will not be safe enough. There is also the matter of the false currency as it has happened in the services like Australian Currency Exchange. So, be careful about every facet of exchanging your money so that you don’t have to waste your money in the wrong place.

The Impact of Structured Finance on the Ghanaian Financial Services Industry in the Next 10 Years

A Company can issue bonds to investors secured on the future profits expected to arise from part of its existing life business.

When a pool of financial assets (such as car finance, home or commercial mortgages, corporate loans,royalties, leases, non-performing receivables, and contractually pledged operating revenues) are structured and transferred to a ‘special purpose vehicle or entity’(SPV or SPE) it is known as a Securitisation transaction.

Generally, most securitisation transactions involve a two tier transaction in which the originator of the assets to be securitised transfers such assets to a wholly-owned SPV.In turn the SPV transfers or pledges such assets to another entity, which issues rated securities in the capital markets that are collaterised by such assets. This second tier entity can be another SPV or a multi-seller commercial paper conduit and can provide funding by issuing medium term notes or commercial paper.

Types of Securitisation transaction

Usually with securitisation transactions, the transfer of rights to assets can take one of two main forms, true sale or synthetic securitisation.

1. True Sale securitisation

In a true Sale securitisation, the originator (for instance a bank selling mortgages) sells the assets to the Issuer. the assets are serviced by the servicer who happens to be the Originator, with respect to say the mortgages sold to the Issuer(i.e.) and the originator continues to collect the principal and interest from the borrowers on behalf of the issuer on such mortgages and see to all default mortgages as well.

The significance of true sale is that the first-tier sale of the assets from the originator to the SPV is structured as a “true sale” such that the assets are removed from the originator’s bankruptcy or insolvency estate and cannot be recaptured by any trustee. Thus, the issuers are usually incorporated as insolvency remote entities; and may not engage into any transactions other than those necessary to effect the securitisation what is known as “limited purpose-concept” by which virtue the SPV will not be allowed to issue any additional debt or enter into mergers or similar transaction.

The transactions can be conducted as conduit, whereby the purchaser purchases and securitises assets from a number of different originators. This is done by through refinancing by issuing commercial paper into the capital market. Banks usually engage in conduits by arranging securitisation for their clients, or standalone where the purchaser only purchases assets and issues as asset-backed securities in the context of a single securitisation transaction. No commercial paper is issued.

It must be said here that, the legal characteristics and economic substance of the transfer will be the primary determining factors as whether the transaction is a true sale not a loan.

2. Synthetic Securitisation

In a synthetic securitisation transaction the originator does not sell any assets to the Issuer and therefore does not obtain any funding or liquidity under the transaction. The originator enters into a credit swap with the issuer in respect of an asset or pool of assets, transferring the originator’s risk to the issuers. Under this contract, the issuer pays the originator an amount equal to any credit losses suffered in respect of such assets or pool of assets. The Issuer’s (SPV) income streams in a synthetic transactions are the fixed amounts paid by the Originator under the credit default swap and interest amounts received on the collateral. These transactions are typically undertaken to transfer credit risk and to reduce regulatory capital requirements.

3. “Whole-Business” Securitisation

Apart from the main two forms above,” whole business” securitisation is sometimes used to finance a stake in private or management buy out of the Originator.

This type of securitisation originated in the United Kingdom. It involves the provision of a secured loan from an SPV to the relevant Originator. The SPV issues bonds into the capital markets and lends the proceeds to the Originator. The Originator services its obligations under the loan through the profits generated by its business. The Originator grants security over most of its assets in favour of the investors. In terms of cash flow, there are three most common types of securitisation transactions:

Collaterised Debt- this is similar to traditional asset-based borrowing. The debt instrument need not match the cash flow configure ration of any of the assets pledged.

Pass-Through-this is the simplest way to securitise assets with a regular cash flow, by selling participation in the pool of assets i.e. an ownership interest in the underlying assets so that principal and interest in the underlying assets collected are given to the security holders;

Pay-Through debt instrument-this is borrowing instrument and not participation. Investors in a pay-through bond are not direct owners of the underlying assets but simply investors.

One significant thing with SPV is that unlike with ordinary operating companies, whose charters typically provide for maximum flexibility, the charters of SPVs provide for the entity to have only those powers that are necessary to accomplish the purpose of the securitisation transaction. Thus the SPV in a securitisation will have the power only to purchase the particular receivables contemplated by the transaction, issue the related capital market securities, and make the payments on them and so on.

The reason for these restrictions is thought to keep the risks of the SPV’s own bankruptcy as narrow as possible: the smaller the range of the entity’s activities, the smaller the risk of a bankruptcy.

Securitisation is based on the underlying assets being securitised. Rating agencies spend a lot of time to estimate the credit risk for all underlying assets in Securitisation transaction. Other risks considered is the prepayment risk.-the risk that a portion of the assets in the underlying pool may be repaid early. Payments and settlements in Ghana are considered to be good. Prepayments can reduce the weighted average life of the pool and as a result expose investors to considerable uncertainty over future cash flows.This can be mitigated by separating the payment of the principal and interest or the conversion of fixed rate returns to floating rate.

Third Party Risk

Collateral is not the only important factor in structured finance transaction. A servicer risk would be particularly strong in Ghana. This is the case that the collection of payments, distribution to investors and performance tracking will fail. Because in Ghana credit rating is not popular.

In a Securitisation or structured finance transaction, a lot of third parties are involved who must fulfill their various responsibilities to make the transaction go on successfully .”Time is money”, it is said. Other third party risks include trustee managing succession of servicing in case of servicer default, notifying investors and rating agencies of breaches and defaults, and holding cash payments to prevent servicer misuse of cash flows; manager responsible to balance the competing interest within a transaction.

Financial Risks (Interest Rate Risks, Foreign Exchange Rate Risks, Devaluation Risk)

Financial risks usually cover interest rates, foreign exchange rate & availability, currency and inflation risks. Inflation really affects the originator in a Securitisation transaction for reasons like raising the cost of the transaction which can delay its completion. Some governments are also sceptical about foreign investment in their country and sometimes prevent the repatriation of funds by foreigners outside. Devaluation and interest rate just like inflation can also affect Securitisation negatively especially when provision has not been made in the transaction deal for that. Russia is a good example. International funds are often cheaper than local ones, but given the fact that the payment to receivables is sold locally, and paid in local currency, using foreign loans creates exposure to the risk of currency depreciation.

Political Risk

Because cross-border transactions are conducted such that assets generate cash flows in the domestic currency while the securities backed by those assets are denominated in foreign currency, there is the risk that regardless of the credit strength of the underlying assets, the issuer might default on the payment. The following relevant known political risks are identified:

Expropriation risk:
The act of taking something from its owner for public use. This involves the act where a government takes over assets or accounts of local parties in the event of financial crisis.

Nationalisation:
Transfer of business from private to state ownership. This is not usually experienced in the West as in South America and Africa. In relation to Ghana’s political situation, this is not envisaged.

Convertibility risk:
This is the risk that in a national crisis, the government might impose a moratorium on all foreign currency debts because of a financial crisis in the country.

Change of law:
The ruling government can change the laws overnight and this can affect a structured finance. Sometimes for economic and political reasons, tax laws are enacted which might not be to the advantage of the originator in terms of the cost increase to certain elements which could increase the purchase price of the product on completion and can jeopardise the securitisation transaction which must be made cheaper if it is to succeed. For example an increase in the fuel tax can affect the entire transaction because tax neutrality is paramount to securitisation transaction.

Legal & Documentation Risks
Following change of law in political risk discussed above, possible legal risks to a Securitisation transaction include inadequate legal, legislative, and regulatory framework on tax, financial and money market & securities. Sometimes the case and administrative laws in the country concerned are not developed. These issues are of great concern to investors and for that matter the originator will have to deal with this risk.

In asset-backed securities(ABS),however, the legal and documentation risks include uncertainty surrounding the transfer of assets from the seller/originator to the SPV (i.e. ‘true sale’) the need to ensure that holders of ABS receive full control over the underlying assets; the bankruptcy remoteness of the issuing SPV.

This means reviewing all the covenants in relation to the separation of the SPV from the seller; the legal roles of the trustee and servicer across all relevant jurisdiction including Ghana to curtail operational and execution risks associated with the payment and receipts of transactions.

Because of the changes in deal structures and considering the legal and financial framework of Ghana, legal and documentation risk will be very high.

Regulatory Risk
The risk that originators and other lenders will not be treated fairly. There should be a laid down regulation on profit-sharing, regulations on the rated instruments and most importantly what structure should the SPV that issues the securities be.

Liability Structure Risk
This risk is the issues associated in which with the tranching or slicing of securities brings conflicting interests which if not checked may disrupt the appropriate distribution of receivables to end-investors. The key to structured finance transaction is the payment waterfall which set the covenants for paying the interests and principal and allocation of losses among investors. This can be sorted with over-collateralisaton tests which ensure the existence of sufficient collateral in the underlying pool of assets to cover principal payments; and interest coverage test to ensure that there are sufficient interest proceeds to cover interest payments to note holders.

Levels of Risks
Rating agencies usually would have to assess the totality of the risks envisaged in each transaction before assigning a rating to the security. Thus the potential for any shortfalls in receivables and the adequacy of any credit enhancement to ensure that the end-investors are assigned the right level of default risk. Cross-border transactions for example require specific analysis regarding the potential limit that could apply to the rating of the notes because of the potential default of a government and the possible application of a moratorium by a government in times of crisis.

Benefits of Securitisation
The use of Securitisation is not limited to one specific asset or income flow. The application stretches beyond the existing bank-funding products and equity funding arrangements. The challenge is the approach with which a Securitisation is considered and the ability to measure the impact thereof on the future of the business. This stems from the fact that Securitisation is cash flow driven and not earnings-improvement driven.

Generally, securitisation can offer the following benefits and we would later analyse to see whether or not it would benefit Ghana.

Efficient access to capital markets: when transactions are for example structured with credit ratings by a recognised credit rating agency on most debts, pricing is not tied to the credit rating of the originator. This is very significant if the originator is not credit worthy.

Limitation on issuer-specific’s ability to raise capital is reduced: securitisations can minimise an entity’s inability to raise capital because capital raised under securitisation becomes a function of the terms, credit quality or rating, prepayment assumptions and prevailing market conditions.

Illiquid assets are converted to cash: Securitisation makes it easier to combine assets which otherwise could not be sold on their own, to create a diversified collateral pool against which debt can be issued.

Raise capital to generate additional assets: capital can quickly be raised such as releasing long-term capital for any allowable purposes like completing capital project and purchasing additional assets.

Match assets and liabilities to minimise risks: a well-structured securitisation transaction could create near perfect matching of term and cash flow locking in an interest rate spread between that earned on the assets and that paid on the debt. This means that Ghanaian business entities can raise enough funds without necessarily providing collateral for security because of the transfer of risk.

Raise capital without prospectus-type disclosure: A conduit securitisation transaction allows one to raise capital without disclosure of sensitive information of any sort; in fact information is kept confidential.

Complete mergers and acquisitions, & divestitures more efficiently: Assets can be combined or divested efficiently under Securitisation transaction. By dividing assets into smaller parts against which debt is issued it can become possible to do away with other business entities which are no longer profitable.

Transfer risk to third parties: Financial risk on loans and other contractual obligations by customers can be partially transferred to investors under securitisations.

More funding beyond bank lending: A structured Securitisation transaction enables the originator to raise funding while maintaining the right to the profit on the receivables. However, these funds will not be linked to its credit rating but rather the credit rating is on the special purpose entity created for the Securitisation transaction. By incorporating an offshore SPE, many businesses in Ghana with poor credit rating might potentially raise funds for any purpose.

The overall effect of securitisation of bank loans and credit aggregates is likely to be a reduction in the level of credit extension by the monetary sector and a reduction of similar magnitude in the M3 money supply. This is to say that the banking sector closes its balance sheet by setting off some loans against some M3 deposits.However,the original borrowers still have obligations but to the SPV not a bank and institutional investors still own assets which are now tradable securities not M3 deposits.

Structure of Ghana’s Financial System
The financial system comprises of
1. Bank of Ghana
I. Savings and loans bank
II. Discount houses
III. Finance houses
IV. Leasing companies
V. Forex Bureaux
2. Securities and Exchange Commission
I. Stock Exchange
II. Brokerage firms
III. Investment Management companies
IV. Trustees and Custodians
3. National Insurance Commission
I. insurance Companies
II. insurance Brokers
III. reinsurance Companies

The banking system in Ghana is structured to serve the needs of all citizens as much as possible. At the end of 2005,the banking industry was made up of Merchant banks, Universal banks, Commercial banks, development Banks,ARB Apex banks, and Rural Banks; with a total growth of its assets by 17.62%.

The Non-Banking Financial institutions (NBFI) sector is made up of Savings and Loans Companies, Discount Houses, Finance Companies and Leasing Companies. Total assets for the Non-Banking Financial Institutions also grew by 47.98% which were mainly triggered by loans and advances, investments, other assets and fixed assets. The Discount houses hold 82.61% of the overall total investments of the NBFI sector.

The new Banking Law, Act 673, which became operational in 2005 with its higher Capital Adequacy Ratio requirements, new sanctions regime, as well as higher governance standards ensured that banks remained generally compliant with regulatory and prudential requirements.

The Securities Market in Ghana

African stock exchanges face a number of challenges before they could enter a new phase of rapid growth. The most critical issue is to eliminate existing impediments to institutional developments. These include a wider dissemination of information in these markets, the implementation of robust electronic trading systems and the adoption of central depository systems. Ghana has since established a central depository system in November, 2004.

The Ghana securities market is regulated by the SEC. The Ghana Stock Exchange is underdeveloped with reference to exchanges in US, Europe and even South Africa. South Africa for example has market capitalisation of $180 billion, one of the largest in the world with Ghana’s market capitalisation of $11 billion.

Considering that Ghana has had just one Securitisation transaction -structured finance-with no records for research, and the position of Ghana’s macro-economic situation, it was found expedient to look at the Securitisation transaction in South Africa. Even though Securitisation transaction is still at an early stage of development in South Africa, it has grown rapidly in recent years and it would be a suitable “benchmark” after which to carve Ghana’s Securitisation transaction.

According to the available information, the first Securitisation in South Africa was aimed at mortgage Securitisation; developments were very slow over the 11 years. Then in 1992 Securitisation was applied to corporate equipment rentals and leases up until 1997 through 2000s with Securitisation on trade receivables, properties, future rebate flows, future cross-border flows and CLOs.

South Africa’s motive for Securitisation transaction was to benefit from more efficient financing and profit maximisation; improved balance sheet structure and finance ratios; improved risk management; and lower economic and regulatory capital requirements among others.

Although the Securitisation transaction is still in its infancy in south Africa, available records show that issuance involving domestic banks in South Africa (i.e. private banks) has increased from R250 million in 1989 to a whopping R26 billion by the end of October 2005. Based on a recent study conducted on the UK market which suggests that Securitisation provides investors the opportunity to attain a higher after tax return in comparison with after tax returns being generated by equity related property investment , Securitisation in South Africa is being applied as an acquisition tool in acquiring properties and as a portfolio optimisation and value unleashing tool.

Securitisation regulations in South Africa compares to international Regulatory Practices similar to those in the United States of America and regulate the manner with which Securitisation assets and income flows are transferred from the originator to the SPV and operational aspects and efficiencies of the SPV.

Different opinions exist in the South African market regarding conformity to Securitisation regulation. One centres on the use of specific words “Bank or deposit-taking Institution” that only South African banks can originate a securitisation.The other opinion is on non-conformity as appropriate if a company or business other than a bank originates a Securitisation.

The onus of the matter is that Securitisation transaction is also designated within the regulation as an activity which is not limited to the business of a bank under certain conditions; thus allowing companies other than a bank to embark on Securitisation transaction.

The Ghana Securities Exchange Commission’s annual report for 2004 does not mince words about the position of the Ghana Securities market. It reported that “despite the modest decline in index performance in percentage terms, the GSE still maintained its position as one of the best performing stock exchanges in the world in 2004 for the second time running.” Market capitalisation of listed Companies on the Ghana Stock Exchange increased by 84.90 trillion cedis to 97.61 trillion cedis from just 12.6 trillion cedis.In dollar terms, market capitalisation went up by 654.0% from US$1.43 billion at the beginning of 2004 to US$10.8 billion at the end of 2004.

Unlike the stock market, the bond market in 2004 was relatively low posing “a serious market development challenge to the commission”. The turnover value of listed corporate bonds in 2004 declined from US$606,600 in 2003 to US$73,414 a decline of 87% whilst government bonds also declined by 71%.The value of listed corporate bonds in 2004 was US$6.79 million compared to US8.98 million in 2003.

The corporate bond market remained relatively quiet. However, the US dollar denominated corporate bonds traded on the market increased by $41,783 to $115,200.

The government of Ghana is determined to use municipal, corporate, government and agency bonds to improve activity in the primary market. As a result of that, the Bank increased accountability and transparency in line with International Financial reporting Standards (IFRS) best practices in its financial reporting and disclosures in 2005.
Coupled with this, other relevant Government policies were strengthened to reinvigorate revenue collections and consolidate public expenditure aimed at reducing the domestic debt in relation to GDP .As a result of that the government started a programme of reducing domestic debt in relation to GDP to enable the private sector access credit and lead the growth process.

The significance of Bank of Ghana in the financial system is that the bank is the provider of technical support for the legal and regulatory reform of the financial system to minimise risks and ensure legal certainty especially for electronic transactions; and also monitor various financial laws at different stages of development.

There is no doubt that people learn from experiences of others so do nations about the successes and failures of other nations especially with regard to something new and complex like the concept of Securitisation transaction. It is recommended that Securitisation in Ghana is modeled on the experience of South Africa’s Securitisation transactions with some changes in the legislations to fit the situation in Ghana.

Ghana’s private sector is beset with many constraints for no doubt, however, the other side is that, there are so many opportunities either untapped or unidentified comparative as well as other natural and mineral resources already in large quantities. There is potential for more effective exploitation of these endowments. But continued reliance on a few commodities with low prices and wages subject to fierce international competition in slow global markets have left the country vulnerable to hardship. These products could be structured and securitised.

Training of players of Securitisation transactions like, the originator, servicer, legal advisers, accounting adviser, tax advisers and others must be continuous about the technicalities of Securitisation transaction from now till the take-off. There should not be any mediocrity as is the characteristics of government and government agencies.
Investors and potential originators must also be educated on the benefits of Securitisation as an alternative for traditional capital formation besides equity and debt which is common to the Ghanaian business community. Providing better understanding of, cash flow drivers behind Securitisation transactions, credit rating agencies and also credit enhancement issues. This would trigger a strong desire for this form of capital formation to put Ghanaian businesses in the race to compete favourably on the international scene.

The technicalities of grasping the intrinsic techniques of properly analysing the segregation of assets and income flows from the company that owns them to the SPV which is meant to control the assets for the benefit of investors, must be well understood by the investment community.

A lack of genuine understanding of the drivers behind a Securitisation transaction, the ability to measure the impact on future operations as well as the initial costs involved in Securitisation creates difficulty in clearly defining the true incentives for conducting Securitisation amongst South African companies. Thus a comprehensive understanding of such amongst Ghanaian companies will boost Securitisation transaction.

One issue that needs to be tackled very well is the Tax Laws to make the Securitisation transaction work. Ghana operates a free-zone scheme and this can be extended to encourage Securitisation transaction. Certain areas within the country could be assigned as ‘free zone for Securitisation’and ‘use as tax haven’ to nurture and groom Securitisation in Ghana.

The regulatory environment through which Securitisation is conducted, coupled with capital market infrastructure to support adequate pricing of all risks associated with all forms of Securitisation transaction-conduit, synthetic or “whole-business”.

Finally, it is recommended that, research into the legal framework on bankruptcy, tax, and commercial laws relating to structured finance and Securitisation in particular should be encouraged among the Ghanaian academia.

Ghana indeed has an enabling environment suitable for Securitisation transaction. Key issues to drive this on might include as mentioned above extension of existing laws like Tax, Bankruptcy and commercial Laws to include treatment of Securitisation transaction.

Ghanaians are strong-willed, forceful and patient. When the expertise is acquired for Securitisation with the training of the players above, good governance of the other key government policies like MIDR and Strategy for 2004-2008‎, improvement on the Ghana School Financing activity‎ they will serve as catalyst for Securitisation.

Considering the experience of South Africa over the past decade, the experience of the developed economies in Securitisation transaction and the macroeconomic and the investment climate continue to improve as it is now ,in the next 10 years, Ghana will not be too farther away from engaging in Securitisation transaction if not already there.

Common Cents When Financing Your Small Business

“The Best Advice is always free”

Starting a small business requires bucket loads of wisdom. Financial wisdom offered through various media is not always inherently beneficial to the reader and their business.

The foundations for financial excellence are elementary and logical; here is a new perspective on financial insight to starting your small business. Making use of purely scenario planning this illustrated scenario would be a recommendation for all businesses that you intend financing.

The average cost of setting up a franchise and small business in U.S.A. is currently in the $300,000.00 to $ 474 000.00 marks, a sizeable sum taking into consideration the prevailing economic climate and business confidence levels.

Loans or Finance

In order to stimulate the economy, banks are eager to finance new business as this has a long-term stimulus on the economy and contributes to job and wealth creation.

Most individuals do not have the entire capital amount available to finance their new venture and financing becomes the preferred and logical route to market.
Taking into consideration the average price of a new franchise $474 000.00, the average cash portion of financing that particular business would be $ 153 000.00 which includes the initial, cash joining or franchise fee.

This would equate to a financing portion of $321 000.00 or 68% of the initial set-up cost of the business.

From a personal and statistical point of view, the gearing or debt ratio is too high and the minimum recommended debt ratio should never exceed 50%.

Why is gearing so important?

It is nerve-wracking and soul-destroying to build a business for you only to allocate the major share of your income and profits to servicing a loan and the commensurate interest payments. The strain on the cash flow and reserve funds is too great, and the business rapidly becomes a financial risk to the entrepreneur and the banks concerned.

“The Free Advice”

Total Cost

When using the above figures as our reference and benchmark, if the inclusive cost of the business is $474 000.00.
It would be prudent to assume that if shares were offered at $1.00 per share then the business would have 474 000 shares on offer.

Share Distribution

Taking my advice of a 50% gearing or financing ratio, the business when financed by the entrepreneur would allocate to the entrepreneur, 50%(237 000 shares) of the shares currently on offer (The portion he/she has paid cash for)
The remaining 50% of shares on offer would be the right and technical ownership of the banks or financing institution.

The Thinking Motivating This Strategy

As the entrepreneur pays off the loan, their ownership or share-holding increases exponentially.
Goals are easy to set, time and financing permitting the entrepreneur sees his/her goal of 100% ownership as achievable and desirable.
When the bank is essentially a partner in your business the relationship changes, the entrepreneur can take the banks perspective into consideration as they are a valuable share-holder, the logic of having a “you” and “me” approach becomes a “we” approach to the business.
Any extra funds available will inherently go toward servicing the loan on the business.

The Ultimate Lesson

That our thinking and approach has changed, it is a recommendation that one ignore financing by financial institutions and approach friends, acquaintances, and family to finance your business using this share-holding approach. The entrepreneur develops a fiscal policy that is easy to equate and calculate, profit distribution is just as equitable, and the entrepreneur has a clearer indication of the status of the business free of financing and interest costs and charges.

Top 5 Benefits Annuities Can Bring Except The Lifetime Income

Earning a consistent income in their retirement life is a major concern for the seniors approaching their retirement and many of them invest in different annuity insurance plans. These annuities help the insured to receive a guaranteed income for life protects from the fear of outliving their savings. Also, if a senior couple hasn’t saved enough or doesn’t have someone to support after their retirement, these policies help greatly to take care of their daily expenses and maintain a better lifestyle. However, the majority of seniors isn’t aware of all the benefits an annuity can bring. Most of them buy an annuity solely to receive a guaranteed income in their retirement life but the annuities have a lot to offer. Here, we are going to explain five more benefits of a retirement annuity plan that you might not be knowing.

Benefit to your loved ones

At times, seniors pay a long series of premiums to earn them back during their retirement but die at an early age without receiving the complete benefits. Many seniors die soon after their retirement and insurance providers keep their share of investment with themselves. But, the new additional feature allows transferring the benefits to the beneficiaries, if the insured dies early. Along with the immediate annuity plan, you can choose a guaranteed period of 10-20 years that are calculated since the time you start receiving the payments. If you opt for a 20-year guaranteed period with the annuities, your insurer will provide a series of payments for exact 20 years. You can name your spouse or kids as the beneficiary and they will receive the benefits for rest of the period, in case you die early.

Tax deferral on earnings

Most of the investments are applicable for state and federal taxes, but the investments such as interests, annuities, dividends and capital gains earn a tax-deferred status. These investments are tax-free until you withdraw the accumulated amount. The tax-deferral is similar to 401(k)s and IRAs, but there isn’t any limit on the amount and you can put any amount into the annuities that you assume enough to spend your retirement comfortably. Moreover, the minimum withdrawal criteria have more flexibility than that of to 401(k)s and IRAs.

Tax-free investment transfers

Market performs differently at a different time and an investment performing strong today may perform poorly after a certain period. Hence, investors keep transferring their investment amount form one to another fund and there are financial advisors to help with the same. Usually, these investment transfers or rebalancing are applicable for taxes but the annuity retirement plan has no such tax consequences. That means, you can rebalance your investments as per your financial advisor’s suggestion and you won’t have to pay any taxes on that.

Protection from lenders

People take different types of loans to match a better lifestyle and pay the due amount in installments. At times, people reach a stage where they only have the money enough to take care of their fundamental requirements and aren’t able to pay the loan installments. In such cases, if the lender files a lawsuit, they may lose the return on the investments made. Annuities insurance policies also help protect your investment return even if you can’t make the installments. Usually, the premiums you have made to your insurance provider, belongs to them and there are laws that restrict that money to be accessed by the lenders.

Variety of investment options

Insurers help the investors with a range of annuity options at retirement including the fixed and variable one. The first one credits a certain rate of interest on the amount you deposit while with the later, your money is invested in the stock or bonds like mutual funds and provide a return based on the market performance. Also, various insurance providers have introduced different types of floors that set a limit by which your investment value may not fall further. That means, if you have invested in a variable annuity, you return won’t fall below a certain value, despite the fluctuations in the market.

Sip Calculator Magnetizing The Investors Towards Online Investing

Online investing option has reached to a higher level with the introduction of SIP calculator. Making the calculation of SIP amount easy, the tool is handy to use as well. Let us understand the concept of SIP calculator with a story. There were two friends Yash and Rohan. Both had passed out college and were placed in MNCs. With the commencement of their career, they took a resolution of initiating their investment also. Yash was very trendy, and new technologies magnetized him. On the contrary, Rohan was simple and was not much of a techie. As both of them decided to invest, Yash did all the research online and also prompted Rohan to take up the online investment method. But, as for Rohan, it was not his area of expertise. So, Rohan relied on the mutual fund agent, and Yash went for online investing. When it came to deciding the amount to invest as SIP monthly both were confused. Yash took the help of an SIP calculator, and Rohan trusted the agent. But, the outcome was that Yash got the exact amount required for investment and the agent failed to calculate the precise amount and thus took an approx figure. Thus, for the same scheme Yash paid the correct amount that was required and Rohan had to pay a little more due to the inaccuracy of calculations.

The story signifies the importance of SIP calculator in the investing process, because the amount of SIP decides the corpus (the main aim of investing). Especially in the online investing the role of an SIP calculator is of vital importance. The investor advances towards being free in order to make the optimal use of their money. SIP calculator acts as a catalyst in aggravating the process investment through proper channel.

Features of an SIP calculator:-

There are a lot of features which motivates an online investor to use SIP calculator. A few amongst them are stated below:

Easy to use:

SIP calculator is an easy tool to operate on. The user-friendly approach is the striking feature of the tool. Providing an environment of smooth functioning and quick calculations, an SIP calculator in India is making online investments attain new heights with each passing day. The main reason of the increasing inclination towards online investment is the handy tool (SIP calculator), which ease out the complex calculations manifolds.

Using CAGR:

SIP calculator uses the formula of CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) to calculate the returns. CAGR is the most widely accepted concept for the growth calculation of investment over a period extending one year. The calculation of CAGR is very complex and not beyond the grasping power of non-financial people. It is a mind wrecking concept and takes time to understand. But you need not worry. The CAGR calculation is simplified with the help of SIP return calculator. Paving the way for quick and easy calculations, SIP return calculator has become a defining point of online investment.

Targeting accuracy:

The goal of an SIP calculator is to provide results that are 100% accurate. But, it works on the inputs that are fed to it. Any mistake in the input data leads to an erroneous result. Otherwise, the result shows the exact and accurate outcome without the mistake of a decimal place. A perfection of that level is surely a strong feature of SIP return calculator.

Terms Used With Car Finance and Bad Credit Car Loans

The terms used with car finance and bad credit car loans can be confusing, so here are some of these and an explanation of what they mean. After reading this, terms such as balloons, auto equity and debt to income ratio will never confuse you again. Learn their language so you can speak to them on equal terms.

APR

The Annual Percentage Rate, or the true interest rate charged for a loan over a year – whether regular car finance or a bad credit loan.

Auto Equity Loan

When you purchase a car you normally get the papers or title to the vehicle. However, with many bad credit car loans, the lender gets the title in return for the cash to enable you to pay for it. You get the title once you have repaid the loan. This way, if you default on your payments, the lender keeps the car and can sell it to use the equity on the car to repay the loan. If there is any cash left after the sale, then you might be given this.

Balloon Payment

If you believe that you will have more money available close to the end of the loan period, you can arrange a balloon payment. Your monthly repayments will be less, and you make the final lump sum payment when it is due. Balloon payments are useful when you have an insurance maturing at the end of the period, or expect to have been able to save up a lump sum to make the final payment.

Debt to Income Ratio (DTI)

This is the ratio of a borrower’s total debt as a percentage of their total income. Some lenders set a maximum DTI above which you cannot borrow any more money – 36% is an average figure. Include all other debts you have, not just your car loan.

Depreciation

The depreciation is the amount by which your vehicle loses value with age, wear and tear. The same term applies to the value of money, and while the value of your car depreciates, the value of your dollar can also depreciate. Fundamentally, the resale value of your car will depreciate every calendar year, most depreciation taking place between being completely new and having been used.

Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA)

This is a federal act by which all creditors must make credit equally available to all buyers irrespective of race, color, religion, national origin, gender or age. However, lenders are not obliged to offer credit if they believe it may not be repaid, so not everybody is entitled to bad credit car loans – or even to car finance of any kind if the lender has valid reasons not to offer it.

Equity

Equity is the difference between the resale value of a property (e.g. your car) and what you still owe on it. So if your car has a resale value of $5,000 and you still owe $3,000 to the lender, your equity is $2,000. This is known as positive equity. Negative equity is as this example but you still owe $5,001!

Gross Monthly Income

Your total monthly income before any deductions. Deductions include tax, child support, insurance, etc. Net monthly income is your income left after such deductions.

Lease

An alternative to buying a vehicle. If you lease a car, you fundamentally rent it, while the owner retains title to it. A lease is generally taken over a much longer period than a rental – many leases run for years.

Loan-To-Value Ratio

Also known as LTV, this ratio is the percentage of difference between a loan amount and a vehicles value. If your car finance is for $5,000 and the value of the car is $10,000, then the LTV is 50%. The loan is 50% of the value of the vehicle.

Monroney Sticker

This is a price sticker required on all new vehicles by federal law. The sticker lists all the options connected with the car together with the manufacturer’s suggested retail price (MRSP.) The MRSP can change if options are different between models or offers.

Payment to Income Ratio

The PTI is a figure stated by a lender that defines the maximum car loan the lender is prepared to offer based on the applicant’s income. This helps to avoid borrowers overextending themselves and being unable to make the monthly repayments. Current averages range from 10% to 15%.

Pink Slip

The Pink Slip is the title for the vehicle, and should be provided to each buyer of that vehicle down the line – just like the title deed for real estate property.

Term

This is the period of the loan from beginning to end, from the time the loan has been granted until it is due to be paid off in full.

Title Loan

Like the Auto Equity Loan, the car is the security for the loan, and the lender keeps the title for the vehicle until the loan has been repaid. This is a common arrangement for bad credit car loans.

Truth-in-Lending

This is a federal law that requires every lender to state the correct annual percentage rate (APR) to borrowers when purchasing a vehicle, whether this is a regular or bad credit car loan.

There are others, although these are the more important of the common terms you will come across when seeking car finance – whether regular car finance or bad credit car loans.

Top 6 Advantages Of Student Loans

It is just a common myth that only the federal loans provided by the UK government are cheaper and easier to repay than the student finance options provided by the private direct lenders. However, if you see the APR and repayment modes, then you come to know that private student loans are the clear winner! Let’s have a quick look at the top 6 advantages of education funds offered by the direct lending companies:

Borrow Short-Term and Long-Term Funds

Whether you are looking for a big amount to complete the higher education course, or need short-term funds, to give just hostel and tuition fees; both options are easily available and you can access the required funds in less than 24 hours without facing any hurdles. You can ask the lender to transfer funds directly to your bank account or deliver to your doorstep.

No Documentation to Waste your Time

The time of a student is very precious and instead of taking stress about the cash, he should focus on studies. Direct lending companies know the importance of young generation in the development of the UK and hence they offer paper free student loans plans. You are not required to submit your last class mark sheet or the address proof.

Apply Online in Just 2 Minutes

You don’t have to bunk classes or take leaves from the college, just open your laptop or smartphone and apply for the student finance loans on any reliable direct lending website. You would need just 2 minutes to complete the online application procedure. No hard copies or soft copies are required.

Avail Funds with No Guarantor

Students don’t have a big network to arrange a guarantor. They are dedicated towards their studies and interact less with people. Arranging a guarantor is an embarrassing task for them as people are not ready to co-sign their application. They can easily access student education loans with no guarantor and no broker by applying to a reliable direct lender.

No Hurdle of Bad Credit History

Some students have bad credit issues due to pending credit card bills or some other reasons. Banks and conventional lending companies don’t entertain their funding requests. However, they can easily secure the cash by applying student loans to a bad-credit friendly lender. There are no hidden charges. You can compare various deals and grab the best one with the lowest APR.

Easy and Flexible Repayment Modes

Everybody knows that a student can’t repay funds during his education time. He doesn’t have a steady source of income. Direct lenders offer various student repayment plans that can be chosen as per comfort. You can either start repaying in installments from the next month or repay the total debt in instalments after completing your education.